ENGL213

UNIT 1

ANUG

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset. The main features are painful, bleeding gums, and ulceration of inter-dental papillae (the sections of gum between adjacent teeth). This disease, along with necrotizing (ulcerative) periodontitis (NP or NUP) is classified as a necrotizing periodontal disease, one of the seven general types of gum disease caused by inflammation of the gums (periodontitis). 

The often severe gum pain that characterizes ANUG distinguishes it from the more common chronic periodontitiswhich is rarely painful. If ANUG is improperly treated or neglected, it may become chronic and/or recurrent. The causative organisms are mostly anaerobic bacteria, particularly Fusobacteria and spirochete species. 

Predisposing factors include poor oral hygiene, smoking, poor nutrition, psychological stress, and a weakened immune system. When the attachments of the teeth to the bone are involved, the term NUP is used. Treatment of ANUG is by removal of dead gum tissue and antibiotics (usually metronidazole) in the acute phase, and improving oral hygiene to prevent recurrence. Although the condition has a rapid onset and is debilitating, it usually resolves quickly and does no serious harm. The informal name trench mouth arose during World War I as many soldiers developed the disease, probably because of the poor conditions and extreme psychological stress.

CCD

 Telemedicine A semiconducting device–charge-coupled device in a solid-state camera or scanner which contains photosensitive (optical) cells; each pixel of an image requires a cell–the more CCDs in a scanner, the higher an image’s resolution. 

CEREC

FFD

Focalfilm distance (FFD) is the the distancebetween the center of the anode of the x-ray tube (the focalspot) and the film (top of cassette). Also known as, Source-image distance (SID) which this measurement effects magnification, distortion, and x-ray beam intensity

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Scanning electron micrograph of a human neutrophil ingesting MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selectionmultiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are a broad-spectrum group that include some penams (penicillinderivatives such as methicillin and oxacillin) and cephems such as the cephalosporins.[1] Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, or MSSA.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positiveround-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen.[1] Although S. aureususually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscessesrespiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Despite much research and development, no vaccine for S. aureushas been approved.

An estimated 20% to 30% of the human population are long-term carriers S. aureus[2][3] which can be found as part of the normal skin flora, in the nostrils,[2][4] and as a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract of women.[5][6] S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections, such as pimples,[7] impetigoboilscellulitisfolliculitiscarbunclesscalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumoniameningitisosteomyelitisendocarditistoxic shock syndromebacteremia, and sepsis. It is still one of the five most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and is often the cause of wound infections following surgery. Each year, around 500,000 patients in hospitals of the United States contract a staphylococcal infection, chiefly by S. aureus.[8] Up to 50,000 deaths each year in the USA are linked with S. aureus infections.[9]MRSA is common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where people with open wounds, invasive devices such as catheters, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of hospital-acquired infection. MRSA began as a hospital-acquired infection but has become community-acquired, as well as livestock-acquired. The terms HA-MRSA (healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired MRSA), CA-MRSA (community-associated MRSA), and LA-MRSA (livestock-associated MRSA) reflect this.

safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) are documents that list information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicalschemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. The older MSDS formats could vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements; however, the newer SDS format is internationally standardized.

An SDS for a substance is not primarily intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health, or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols. The same product (e.g. paints sold under identical brand names by the same company) can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.

SDS

safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) are documents that list information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicalschemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. The older MSDS formats could vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements; however, the newer SDS format is internationally standardized.

An SDS for a substance is not primarily intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health, or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols. The same product (e.g. paints sold under identical brand names by the same company) can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.

position-indicating device

 Abbreviation: PID
A device to guide the direction of the x-ray beam during the exposure of dental radiographs. This devices improves and standardizes dental radiographic imaging and reduces the patient’s risk of radiation exposure.

PDR

A trademark for Physicians’ Desk Reference, a group of reference works, including books and databases, that provideinformation about prescription drugs.

Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE)

Zinc Oxide Eugenol | Perfection Plus

Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) is a material created by the combination of zinc oxide and eugenol contained in oil of cloves. An acid-base reaction takes place with the formation of zinc eugenolate chelate. The reaction is catalysed by water and is accelerated by the presence of metal salts. ZOE can be used as a dental filling material or dental cement in dentistry.[1][2] It is often used in dentistry when the decay is very deep or very close to the nerve or pulp chamber. Because the tissue inside the tooth, i.e. the pulp, reacts badly to the drilling stimulus (heat and vibration), it frequently becomes severely inflamed and precipitates a condition called acute or chronic pulpitis. This condition usually leads to severe chronic tooth sensitivity or actual toothache and can then only be treated with the removal of the nerve (pulp) called root canal therapy. For persons with a dry socket as a complication of tooth extraction, packing the dry socket with a eugenol-zinc oxide paste on iodoform gauze is effective for reducing acute pain.[3] The placement of a ZOE “temporary” for a few to several days prior to the placement of the final filling can help to sedate the pulp. It is classified as an intermediate restorative material and has anaesthetic and antibacterial properties. It is sometimes used in the management of dental caries as a “temporary filling“. ZOE cements were introduced in the 1890s. 

Zinc oxide eugenol is also used as an impression material during construction of complete dentures and is used in the mucostatic technique of taking impressions, usually in a special tray, (acrylic) produced after primary alginate impressions. However, ZOE is not usually used if the patient has large undercuts or tuberosities, whereby silicone impression materials would be better suited.

Zinc oxide eugenol is also used as an antimicrobial additive in paint.

HOMONYMS

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INTRAORBITAL/ SUBORBITAL

PACHYDERMA